Forensic Geoscience is the area of Criminalistics that is concerned with the application of geological methods and techniques in police investigations and legal proceedings. It is a relatively recent branch of Geoscience that has shown satisfactory results when applied to the resolution of crimes. One of its foundations is the Locard's Exchange Principle, which defines that any action performed by an individual does not occur without the interaction with the environment and the mutual transfer of material.
Criminalistics is defined as a scientific discipline aimed to recognize, identify, individualize and evaluate physical evidence related to a crime.
It has many applications during a criminal investigation, such as: analysis e comparison of trace evidence found in individuals, objects and crime scenes; search for burials; geographical sourcing of unidentified human remains; evaluation of different types of forgeries (fossils, gems, jewelry, works of art); assessment in the prosecution related to environmental crimes (pollution, landslides, landslides, spills); and complex cases involving multidisciplinary skills and contexts.